Cognitive linguistics is the product of the development of cognitive science, and represents a linguistic research paradigm, which is the general term of various cognitive language theories. Cognitive linguistics philosophy is based on experience, that is, the People's Daily experience as the foundation of language use, explaining inseparable relationship between language and general cognitive ability, language cognition as an integral part of people's cognitive process to grasp.
Study of modern linguistics, cognitive connected with language, but language cognitive research as an independent discipline is a rise in the late 1970 s, the mid - 80 - s after its research scope extended to many fields of linguistics, including syntax, phonology, semantics, discourse analysis, etc. The first international conference on cognitive linguistics, held in Germany in 1989, and the journal cognitive linguistics, which was published in l990, marked the establishment of the academic status of cognitive linguistics. Since then, cognitive linguistics has developed rapidly, and more and more scholars have begun to study language from the perspective of cognition.
Is part of the cognitive science, cognitive linguistics and cognitive sciences is a comprehensive science, psychology, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, computer science and other multi-disciplinary of interdisciplinary, from exploring the secret of thinking in different ways. The crystallization of the human mind is the language, the language is one of the ways of expressing ideas and human thought, is part of the cognitive system, is the human experience, culture, society, customs and environmental factors such as the result of the interaction. On the one hand, using the theory of cognitive science and cognitive linguistics method to explore the language phenomenon, on the other hand, through the phenomenon of language to reveal people's cognitive ability, language cognition as an integral part of people's cognitive process to grasp.
Categorization is arguably the most important one of the most basic of human cognitive activity, refers to the humanity in the process of evolution to the outside world things sort or classified, the disordered world into orderly, a hierarchical category system. This process is the first part of cognition, or cognition. Categorization enables human beings to see similarities in all things, and to deal with things that are distinguishable from each other in the same category, thus forming a concept. On this basis, humans can complete more complex cognitive activities, including judgment and reasoning. The occurrence and development of cognition is a process of forming concepts and categories. It is a mental process of classifying external things from the perspective of the interaction of the subject. As Lakoff said, "without the ability to categorize, we can't function in the outside world or in social life and in our spiritual life."
The phenomenon of categorization has long attracted the attention of philosophers, and Aristotle's view of the category in the system of the category is based on the classical view of categories. Since the 1960s, the study of psychology and anthropology has put forward a great deal of evidence against the traditional concept of category. Wittgenstein put forward the concept of "family resemblance" in philosophical research. Vickers believes that cannot be described using a common attribute to a category of all members, only there is some similarity between members and members, and in this mixed coupling ChengFanChou overall similarity; The boundary of the category is vague and open; The status of each member in the category is unequal.
Vickers's "family resemblance" denies that there is any common nature between the members of the category, and presents a powerful challenge to the classic category view. Since the 1970s, "family resemblance" has been introduced into the semantic category. It has triggered the reexamination of the problem of categorization in philosophy, psychology and linguistics. Linguists Labov and Rosch successively published their experimental results on the nature category, and referred to these natural categories with "family resemblance" as "prototype category". Whether a thing belongs to this category is not whether it has all the common characteristics of the member of the category, but whether it has enough "family resemblance" between its prototype and its prototype. The great development of categorization has become an important foundation for cognitive linguistics to produce and develop.
Lakoff and Johnson divided cognitive science into two groups according to philosophical commitment and belief: the first generation of cognitive science and the second generation of cognitive science. The first generation of cognitive science originated in the 1950s. Objectivism cognitive view represents the first generation of the basic ideas of cognitive science, can be summed up as "all rational thinking involved operation of abstract symbols, these symbols could be attained only by the statute of things with the outside world". Thinking is only the mechanical operation of abstract symbols, which is not restricted by human perception system and motion system. The human mind is a mirror of nature, an internal representation of the outside world, an objective reflection of nature. Chomsky's generative linguistics is a typical theoretical form of cognitive science in the field of linguistics.
The second generation of cognitive science emerged in the 1970s, believing in the so-called non-objectivist philosophy, based on the experience of philosophy. Second generation cognitive science is firmly opposed to the basic ideas of the first generation of cognitive science, think objectivism cognitive view ignores one of the most important characteristics of human cognition, namely the person's physiological basis in the process of forming concept and language play an important role. The concept of experiential cognition is mainly reflected in the following aspects: the mind cannot be detached from the form. Concepts, categories, and minds come from physical experience, and those that are not derived from experience are the result of using metaphors, metonymy, and mental imagery. The basic view of cognitive linguistics is consistent with the second generation of cognitive science. Cognitive linguists believe that language competence is a part of human's general cognitive ability, and its description must refer to cognitive processes. Grammar and syntax are not independent, but are inseparable with semantics and vocabulary. Semantics is not only the objective reflection of the outside world, but also is closely related to people's subjective cognition, is achieved through the body and imagination, and this kind of imagination is not out of shape, because metaphor, metonymy, and mental imagery is based on experience, this is in stark contrast with the objectivism semantics. "Experience philosophy is the first generation and second generation cognitive science watershed of cognitive science, the division of the far-reaching significance, can make us more clearly understand the theory of cognitive science, not confuse with different genres."
Any subject has its limits, and its limitations, like all linguistic theories, and so does cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics is a traditional linguistics, especially the reactionary Chomsky conversion generative linguistics, it made up for some shortcomings of the school, put forward many new ideas and explain language has made the significant development of language theory. At the same time it has gone to the other extreme, abandoned the reasonable places of other schools, and we cannot expect it to solve all the problems in linguistics. The deficiency of cognitive linguistics deserves our further consideration.
The linguistic world and its law are the objects of cognitive linguistics, whose purpose is to reveal the influence of cognition on language. We should view the relationship between cognition and language dialectically. Language cognition is a part of the whole cognitive process, but the relative independence of language can affect the way people perceive the world. For example, differences in the cognition of the real world can lead to different grammatical categories of different national languages, which will affect the way that language users observe and perceive the world. In English grammar, there is a singular and plural mark, plural in the suffix -s, and the singular is zero. English speakers, when they use language to express themselves, must conform to the grammatical requirements. Over time, the world will focus on the characteristics of the number of things, so they can fully to make no mistake on the use of animals, and we Chinese students often make mistakes on it, the reason is that we don't have the number of categories in syntax, and so on cognitive world, would not have to pay attention to quantity.
On the family resemblance to build a prototype category theory is that: have a central meanings in the category, the archetypal meanings, other than center meanings is based on the center extends outward. In a category, especially in the context of multiple items, how do you determine a central component? Should it be the original meaning of the concept, or the central meaning formed in the process of language development? We cannot be sure that a central meaning is central, fundamental, or original, or that the other members are extended out of the center of a prototype.
Cognitive linguistics is a new school of modern linguistics, and there are still imperfect places. But it put forward a set of its own theoretical system and research method, its theoretical foundation is very challenging, and gradually accepted by most of the world language scholars. With the study of the deep people, the theoretical system is improved, the cognitive linguistics will reveal the language rules more comprehensively, the mystery of human language will be revealed little by little.