下面是Fanessay整理的一篇essay范文-- British liberal welfare system，英国是世界上第一个建立福利制度的国家，从那时起，英国的福利制度不断发生变化。第二次世界大战后，随着工党和保守党的政权更迭，福利政策转变为集体主义和自由主义。在撒切尔夫人执政期间，自由主义最为明显，她削减了政府开支，强调个人责任和义务，并减少了社会福利覆盖面。目前，英国已经建立了一个相对健全的福利制度，涵盖各种各样的人。
Welfare system was first implemented in the form of legislation, which originated from Elizabeth's poor law. After Britain announced the establishment of the world's first welfare state, Sweden and other countries followed suit, which had a profound impact on the establishment and development of welfare security systems in various countries after the second world war. The establishment of welfare state model is not only promoted by welfare thoughts and theories, but also influenced by economic, social and cultural factors. The article discusses the welfare system of the British model.
Britain was the first country in the world to establish a welfare system, and its Elizabeth poor act of 1691 enjoys a good reputation in history. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Britain's welfare system underwent constant changes. After the end of the second world war, as the regime changed in Labour and the conservatives, welfare policy was transformed in collectivism and liberalism. Liberalism was most evident during the thatcher years, when she cut government spending, emphasized individual responsibility and accountability, and reduced social welfare coverage. The "third way" of Mr Blair's rise to power was to reduce government intervention while at the same time creating a system for social justice. Thus the term "liberal collectivism" best encapsulates Britain's post-war welfare system. At present, Britain has established a relatively complete welfare system covering all kinds of people. The following will discuss from social insurance, social relief and social welfare, and other policies.
The social insurance in Britain mainly includes endowment insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance. The UK accounts for about 41 per cent of total social security spending each year.
British pensions are mainly divided into three categories and seven categories -- state pension, enterprise annuity and private pension.
The basic state pension comes from two parts, one is the national insurance tax jointly paid by employees and employers, the other is the financial subsidy arranged through general tax revenue. State basic pension is characterized by mandatory, unity and universal coverage rate, uniform collection by the royal tax agency, payment: according to the different people collecting with the employer's employees are based on employees' payroll, high earners according to the different income of 20% ~ 20% higher income taxes and independent professionals are divided into norm and the operating profit tax.
The country of England basic endowment insurance has legal get age. The current retirement age for men is 65 and for women is 60, and it is being extended year by year, and the retirement age for women will be extended to 65 by 2020. Recipients must also pay for at least 52 weeks a year.
The state second pension was proposed in 2002, but will be abolished in 2016, and integrated with the state basic pension into a new endowment insurance, but due to its important role, it should be introduced.
The state second pension obliges all working members to participate, but only the following employees are eligible: an average weekly salary of less than 112 pounds, children with less than 12 and on child benefit, carers' allowance and disability allowance. It is therefore not hard to see that the pension is designed to protect the low-income and vulnerable people living in difficulties.
Occupational pensions are divided into DB and DC. DB type offers a percentage of the employee's salary upon retirement, and the longer the employee works, the higher the percentage. The actual contributions to be borne by employers and employees are determined by defined pension levels and will be adjusted periodically based on actuarial valuations. DC through the payment of personal accounts, when leaving can take away. As of 2009, about a quarter of occupational pension schemes are paid by employers, and some are paid jointly by employers and employees.
There is a certain age condition for receiving enterprise annuity in the UK. The age condition for receiving enterprise annuity is 55 years old. Employees who die early will be paid a lump sum.
Individuals can choose to enroll in an insurer's private pension plan regardless of whether they are employed by the business or whether the employer agrees. If the employer does not provide a corporate pension plan for the employee, the employer must enter into an agreement with one or more insurance companies to deduct the employee's contributions and pay the premiums to the insurance company.
Britain boasts a public health service, called the NHS, that covers almost all its citizens and is largely financed by the state. The system has been in place for half a century since the second world war.
The fund adopts the pay-as-you-go model, which mainly comes from the central government revenue, and some of it is drawn from the national insurance. The state obliges all salaried people to pay 075% of their monthly salary, employers to pay 06% of their total salary, and independent workers and farmers to pay 135% of their income as health care costs.
The NHS is divided into two main levels, primary health care, which is dominated by general practitioners, and secondary care provided by hospitals. To allocate resources more rationally, community health care systems in the UK provide more than 90 per cent of primary health care services and less than 10 per cent of patients are referred to hospitals.
The national health care act provides that all British citizens can enjoy free medical services without obtaining insurance qualification. But more expensive medical services, such as dental surgery, eye exams and eyeglasses, still cost money, and patients pay prescription fees for each drug, in addition to vulnerable groups such as mothers, children, pensioners and low-income groups. The NHS also includes hygiene education and the provision of good hygiene conditions and the inspection, supervision and management of medical-related issues.
NHS England is paid directly by the social security authority to a member of the service and to a drug supplier, and patients and hospitals do not have direct economic relations.
Employers pay unemployment benefits at different rates of weekly wages; The worker is paid according to the different standard of weekly income, every week income exceeds 175 pound above all can attend insurance, and independent laborer, the married woman of pay deduction insurance premium and widow are not inside safeguard object limits, charge deficit is filled by central finance.
The UK also launched reemployment services to boost employment for the unemployed. If a job is not found after three months of unemployment, the unemployed need to go to an employment center and have extensive interviews with service officials to find out what the problem is. For job seekers who have been out of work for two years or more, the UK government will start classes again to help them tackle problems more specifically. A? 30 training allowance will be offered to sign up for a range of training; 250 per month subsidy for employers who hire the unemployed; Jobcentre officials have been paired off with the long-term unemployed.
In addition to the national unemployment insurance service, there are numerous insurance companies operating private unemployment insurance business in the UK. The top 10 private unemployment insurance companies in the UK have a maximum benefit of up to? 3,000 a month.
Britain does not have alone inductrial injury insurance fund, inductrial injury insurance treatment pays by social insurance fund. All the person that has a job should attend inductrial injury insurance, to the enterprise with high accident risk, have additional subsidy system. Insurance for work-related injuries is Shared by employers, employees and the government, which accounts for about one-sixth of the total premium.
In the UK, there are seven categories of workers' insurance benefits: disability benefits, long-term care benefits, special care benefits, medicaid, income reduction benefits, retirement benefits and bereavement benefits.
The British national maternity insurance is mainly divided into two categories: maternity allowance and statutory maternity pay. Employees receiving maternity benefits have to pay the insurance premium for 26 weeks within 66 weeks before the due date of birth, and earn more than 58 pounds per week. Statutory maternity pay is paid entirely by the employer, and employees enjoying statutory maternity pay need to be employed by the same employer for at least 26 weeks and earn a weekly income of 58 pounds or more.
Like other policies, there are many insurance companies that offer private birth insurance. Different insurance companies offer different hospital service options, as well as different insurance programs and policy benefits.
As an integral part of social security mechanism, social welfare and social relief mainly target those in need.
The British district government registers local homeless people and provides a daily breakfast and weekly bath and laundry service. But both services guarantee only the minimum living needs of the homeless and are designed to make them less dependent on social assistance.
In the UK, people with disabilities used to be able to apply for disability benefits, which were divided into under-16s and over-16s. Persons between 16 and 64 years of age are entitled to a disability living allowance of around 100 pounds per week, regardless of whether they work, property or income. Today, the government is reforming the disability living allowance, and people born after April 8, 1948, need to apply for individual independent payments to cut government spending.
The main purpose of low-income family life assistance is to assist families whose parents have full-time and have children, but whose income is below the official poverty line. The amount of aid varies with the government's poverty standards. Low-income families can also get part of the heating bills, free school milk and meals for their children and free national insurance, and rent subsidies. But starting April 15, 2013, benefits for working-age people will be capped at no more than the average income of ordinary working families.
Other policies are an important part of the British social welfare system, among which the community care for the elderly and differential housing policies are quite useful to our social security mechanism.
In the UK, there are two main ways of community care: "community care" and "community care". The former refers to the normative old-age care directly interfered by the government, which is generally provided by the government, public welfare institutions and other organizations. The nursing staff is also professional or semi-professional. The service target is the old people who cannot take care of themselves. The latter refers to non-normative old-age care without direct intervention by the government. Nursing workers are generally related to the cared for by blood or morality, and the service target is usually the elderly with certain ability of self-life care.
In Britain, housing is divided into three types from the perspective of the builder: the government is responsible for building affordable housing, selling or renting it out to low - and middle-income families; Private housing associations build social housing and sell or rent it to low - and middle-income families or a small number of high - and middle-income families. Private developers build marketable commercial housing for middle - and high-income families. This allows households with different housing needs to get housing and guarantee the proportion of affordable housing. Since the 1970s, Britain has provided corresponding preferential policies or subsidies to low-income people to solve the housing problem of the poor.
The pension gap, the aging of population, the disappearance of demographic dividend and the grim employment situation are all problems that cannot be ignored in the reform of China's social security system. Drawing on the advantages of the British welfare system, we should vigorously develop supplementary social insurance, promote the development of enterprise annuity, encourage individuals to participate in commercial insurance, and ease the financial pressure caused by excessive government expenditure on social security. Play an active role in the community and complement the elderly care services. We will increase input in private medical insurance and promote tiered medical treatment. We will improve the information disclosure system, make public the use of social insurance funds, and increase people's trust in the government. We will improve the system of employment and reemployment, combine welfare assistance with employment promotion, and increase the employability of the unemployed. It will be worth exploring to pay more attention to the prevention of social security and balance the relationship between the prevention before good and the protection after good.