今天Fanessay整理了一篇assignment范文--The informal science ，这篇文章讨论的内容是关于非正规科学教育方面的，可以供大家了解下。对于非正规科学教育方面，是面对公众的，是以科学、工程和技术作为主要内容的教育形式。在美国，非正规的科学教育的由来是很久的，近十年来也是发展迅速，这也提高了公众科学素养。相对于传统的学校科学教育的非正规面向公众了，而以科学和技术是主要学习的内容。
The informal science education, corresponding to the traditional school science education, is a lifelong learning form for the public, with science, technology and engineering as the main content. "In our common sense, schools are responsible for the dissemination of scientific knowledge for society, but in fact, schools education cannot undertake this task completely independently, and society must better understand and pay attention to the informal science education experience in order to promote science education and science learning more broadly." Scientific education has a long history outside American schools. In the past decade, informal scientific education has been rapidly developed due to the attention paid by education department. As an important supplement to school science education, it plays a role in improving public scientific literacy.
Compared with the previous times, the specialization, deepening and high-end technology of scientific theory in the big science era has gradually distanced science from the daily life of the public. However, the living environment and quality of life of human beings are more dependent than ever on the development of science and technology and its effective application. In such a situation, the scientific literacy of the whole people and individuals becomes an important factor affecting social and personal development. To take advantage of such competition, the United States has made two major changes to the science foundation education of k-12 education schools, most notably the "2061 program."
In 1985, the American association for the advancement of science launched a cross-century program aimed at curriculum reform in primary and secondary schools. The plan put forward "the future of children and adolescents from high school should grasp the basic knowledge of science, mathematics and technology framework, including the major disciplines of basic skills, basic content, basic concept, organic connection between disciplines, and master the content, concept and contact the basic attitude, method and means". In 1985, Halley's comet was close to the earth, and its return visit would not take place until 2061. In order to cultivate people who could adapt to the science, technology and social life when Halley's comet returned to earth, the program was named "2061 program". To accomplish this goal, plan 2061 has conducted a series of studies and developed tools to serve educators, researchers, and policy makers, enabling it to play a critical and long-lasting role in the development of the education system in the country. The program brought together more than 30 scientists, science educators and professors of various disciplines. It took four years of in-depth research and hundreds of discussions and revisions to form a general blueprint of American science education, science for all Americans, and began a round of k-12 education stage scientific education reform. Subsequently, the "2061 plan" has published the scientific literacy benchmark, the scientific literacy source, the scientific literacy blueprint, the reform blueprint and so on.
Science education focuses on learners' mastery and application of scientific knowledge, which is largely passive for learners, and is only a starting point for improving public scientific literacy. The successful science education should be to cultivate learners' scientific inquiry ability and improve the public's scientific literacy education -- the guidance of science teachers in school science education and classroom is far from enough. "The deepening study of scientific learning makes it clear that understanding science requires much more than mastering the knowledge itself. At the basic level, understanding science includes understanding the nature of science and the flow of scientific activities. For these reasons, now more than ever, the informal environment can and must play an important role in science education.
Informal science education in the national science foundation project officer David ? YouKe lies in November 2005 at the Shanghai urban development international BBS, points out that the informal education is so attention, there are two reasons: "first of all, for the general public, it can provide us with a long-term in the field of science and technology learning opportunities, and to provide some national and local policy guidance; Secondly, for students, it can stimulate their interest in science and technology, enable them to better complete the formal study in school, and also accumulate experience and ability for their future work ". It can be seen that with the rapid development of science and technology and the increasing attention paid to citizens' scientific literacy in the world, informal science education, as a supplement to the traditional science education, increasingly highlights its importance. In the process of disseminating science, it has something in common with traditional science popularization activities and its irreplaceable particularity.
Traditional education of science is aimed at school-age students, and for those who cannot get education opportunities in school for various reasons, informal education is an important way to acquire scientific knowledge. Informal science education enables non-mainstream and some vulnerable groups in society to have the opportunity to learn science. "We need to focus on four traditional subgroups in science learning: women, native American Indians, and people living in remote areas and people with disabilities." It is not difficult to find that the study of science involves not only cultural diversity but also fairness and justice. Informal science education can play a positive role in solving these problems. The national science foundation-funded program, the graduate education joint program with professors, aims to help non-mainstream Americans earn master's degrees in science, technology, engineering and math, as well as help these minority groups compete for university professorship. This is a special case, highlighting the diversity of informal education in the United States. Generally, non-mainstream people have less chance to obtain scientific education. Besides cultural and regional factors, economy is also an important factor that restricts the participation of such people in scientific learning. Such people are often unable to participate in the formal school science education, while the informal science education fully reflects the characteristics and advantages of facing the public, and provides the opportunity for all citizens to receive science education under the funding of various institutions.