下面是Fnessay分享的一篇assignment范文--About British publishing history，本篇文章讨论的内容是关于英国出版史方面的，可以供大家了解下。在西方的学术界，书籍史与出版史是学术的热点，英国的出版史也是如此。对于英国的出版史的研究，呈现了多元化的发展趋向，重视文化传统文献的研究，强调出版史的社会史与文化史方面。古腾堡改进印刷术后，欧洲版业出现了很大的编号，出版文化的发展当时也不是在英国发生的，它和启蒙思想的支持与传播有着很大的联系，出版业的发展在一些程度上是整个欧洲启蒙运动的特征。
In western academic circles, the study of the history of books and publishing is an academic hot spot, as is the study of the British publishing history. In general, the research on the history of publishing in the UK shows a diversified trend of development. It not only pays attention to the research on traditional philology, such as book form and edition catalogue, but also emphasizes the research on the social history and cultural history of publishing history. After Gutenberg's improvement of printing, European publishing industry underwent great changes. However, "the leaps and bounds of publishing culture did not occur only in Britain at that time. It was closely related to the support and dissemination of enlightenment ideas. Why were the world's first modern publishers born in Britain? This has become a hot topic for many scholars interested in the history of British publishing, which is in line with the current orientation of Business history research in the history of British publishing.
The research on the British publishing history, especially the publishers, is analyzed from the bibliography of the George times publishers, such as William Strahan and his ledgers. The research on publishing institutions and publishing figures, such as The research on famous publishers Joseph Johnson, The Noble brothers, John Newbery in The late 18th century, James Aikman Cochrane, Gerald Tyson, Leslie Chard, etc., has produced many research results. As many as 37 studies have been conducted on the 14 largest publishers in the George era, including the longman family and the Nichols family, according to Dr Yu's "appendix: research index of major British publishers in the George era", which follows his book. Taking a look at these achievements of western academic circles, we can say that they have a solid research foundation and a wide range of perspectives, which provide us with references to many aspects of British history. It is regrettable that, apart from the few copies of "enlightenment and publishing: Scottish writers and publishers in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States in the 18th century" which have been translated into Chinese, almost none of them have appeared in the database system of Chinese libraries, making it even more difficult for Chinese scholars to study them.
In addition to the introduction of foreign scholars' works, the importance of foreign publishing history is far less than that of Chinese publishing history, with only a few textbooks and a few translations. It may be an effective way to promote the study of the history of publication. It is gratifying to note that scholars such as zhang zhiqiang, he zhaohui, he daokuan and yu wen are now advocating and urging this matter in China. With time, there may be more Chinese translations in the study of the history of foreign publishing, and the breadth and depth of the research on the history of Chinese publishing.
It is undeniable that in the current academic context, the research paradigm of Chinese and foreign publishing history is different. The study of the history of books in the west focuses on the awareness of problems, such as the history of the heart, the research orientation of the history of reading, and the study of readers. In fact, the author yu wen has published several research papers on the history of western books, such as the conception and birth of "book history" and the social history turn in the study of the history of western books. It can be seen that he is deeply familiar with the research paradigm and writing mode of the history of western books.
Author shows that the publishers of the birth of influenced by the history of western books, problem consciousness in the works is very obvious, using a large amount of raw materials, through deep narrative means, such as the book discusses the problems such as cost, financing and profit, this is a commonly used in western history books and publishing research paradigm. Specifically speaking, the main performance in the following aspects.
One theme: modern British publishers. The birth of modern publishers is an important event of modern western culture industry, because "modern publishing industry is the first industry category of modern culture industry". 18th century British publishing industry developing rapidly, the birth of a number of family, why in 18 th-century Britain as a number of modern publishers, some scholars pointed out that "cannot be summarized into a sudden outbreak of author's creativity, nor the bookseller committed to the production and spread good outline map of commodity business development. In the second half of the 18th century, the publication of new books was almost always the result of a collaboration or collaboration between authors and publishers. Therefore, surrounding the formation of modern publishers, the author divides it into three propositions, "why does modern publishing need an independent publisher?" "What led to the emergence of modern British publishers in the late 18th century, and not at any other time?" "What are the signature characteristics of the formation of publishers?" These problems can be further subdivided into several problems. The layered emergence of these problems involves such professional topics as the evolution of the publishing industry, the particularity of the discipline, etc. However, these problems are finally solved, and the theme of "the birth of modern publishers" becomes very clear.
In terms of narrative strategy, in view of the relatively broad concept in the study of the history of western books, the author consciously defines his own research, which is conducive to the highlighting of the theme and the precise answer to the self-established proposition. The first is to define the research scope, including the research time and space. In terms of the research time, for the need of elaboration, the research time is divided into two parts: one is "the formation time of modern publishers"; the other is "the time range of this book". In terms of the spatial scope of the research, it is identified as "modern British publishers", and the scope of its research "publishing" is defined as "commercial publishing activities for the purpose of profit, excluding publishing and communication activities funded by the government, institutions or individuals". In this way, it echoes the "publishing industry" which is one of the categories of "cultural industry" and the "special risk of new book publishing" and other related thoughts repeatedly emphasized in the works. Secondly, it defines several core concepts involved in the book, such as publisher, printer, bookseller, and related concepts such as "uncertainty" and "cultural middleman". As mentioned before, there are many books on the history of British publishing published in the academic circle, but the concepts involved are not completely unified, and the definition of concepts is particularly necessary, which can not only echo the theme but also facilitate the discussion. Two main themes: uncertainty and cultural middlemen. "Uncertainty" and "cultural broker" is the study of culture industry related problems frequently used two kinds of theoretical assumptions and analysis framework, the publisher of the birth of the two propositions as discussed the main line, on the one hand, avoids the book became a pure "modern British publisher" history, achieve the result of a combination; On the other hand, the paper also links the two main lines together with the evolution of publishing industry, and probes into the "uncertainty and the evolution of publishing industry, the nature of modern publishers and modern publishing industry".
According to existing research, "demand uncertainty" is widely used in the fields of economics, statistics and other disciplines, and this problem exists in almost all industries in the modern sense. "Uncertainty" in "the birth of publishers" refers to the uncertainty of "demand", more and more prominent the author demand uncertainty in "book", it can reveal in part how the unity of material and spiritual attributes as set "books" in the process of production may face the problem, as modern publishers have to face the problem. As a result, modern publishers must be "modern author" and "modern readers" linked to the activities of the "human", properly handle the relationship between the two, to establish a system for proper choice, clever design good books about, make sure good business model, etc., and properly solve a series of problems of modern publishing industry, and it explained by a series of problems of history, is the history of the birth of modern publishers system.
Cultural intermediaries is to use an academic concept in the field of culture. Pierre Bourdieu as "cultural middleman" refers to the social class formed by intermediary actors in modern cultural production, including critics, producers, publishers, advertisers and writers. Scholars such as Richard Peterson and Lewis Coser have enriched and perfected this theory. Scholars in Chinese culture have a similar definition. For example, he shengsui, President of the Shanghai editing society, once said that "cultural middlemen in publishing tend to attach importance to the career significance of their work first, and they are also good at management and have enterprise brains". The author applies the concept of "cultural middleman" to the birth of modern publishers, which can well explain the diversity of the form of the main body of publishing industry, and systematically sort out and study its functions and historical evolution. Because "as the individual cultural middlemen, the most concentrated expression of the cultural production of the organizers of their own complexity and contradictions, and individual behavior and ideological changes are better suited to the historical analysis to find".
Three core levels. The spread of book reading and writing in Britain in the 18th century, the change of the form of the book publishing industry in Britain in the 18th century and the birth of modern publishers in Britain in the 18th century have been carried out at the three core levels, so that the theme and main line of the discourse can be better expressed, forming a crisscross mode of discourse and making the treatise more scientific and reasonable.
In the 18th century, Britain "experienced a transition from a relatively stable pre-industrial society to an increasingly expanding industrial society, which was also a period of social structure differentiation and integration". Due to the changes in the internal structure of British society at this time, the modes of social communication, including books, as well as the mode of information dissemination, have also undergone fundamental changes. As far as the book field is concerned, both the producers and consumers of books have undergone tremendous changes, which is reflected in the emergence and substantial increase of modern authors. The successful writers, female authors and professional writers in all walks of life have gradually diversified their composition. The content of the book is also gradually showing the characteristics of The Times. In the field of literature, novel and other new books have appeared. Scientific knowledge, including natural science knowledge, has been better spread. Readers, with the demand of different knowledge, show a trend of expansion and diversification. "The birth of the publisher" is a masterly application of 17th-18th century personal library records and British reading databases to prove that "the fundamental market environment for publishing has changed substantially" in 18th-century Britain.
Due to the changes of authors and readers in Britain in the 18th century, the industrial pattern of book publishing industry must also change with the change of book production. However, for this new market, booksellers still wander in the fields of manuscript, grammar textbooks and reference books, and new books do not have a sudden "blowout". The reason is that the demand for new books is uncertain, which makes the publication of new books a high-risk behavior. The author discusses from the aspects of "the uniqueness of content", "the instability of book value" and "the factor of piracy", and proves that the uncertainty makes British booksellers face a "market environment of modern publishers" at the end of the 18th century.
The birth of modern publishers is firstly based on the old-fashioned booksellers. The birth of publishers recognizes this problem, and the author makes a specific analysis of the traditional business model of the old-style booksellers, including "publishing in a certain world" and "joint publishing system". Since 1774, the united publishing system has declined, and the development strategy of booksellers has undergone a great transformation, from the united monopoly to independent competition. In order to cope with the uncertainty of book production, publishers allied with authors through "topic selection" and "draft selection", and went on to professional publishing, until the combination of capital and the great differentiation of booksellers, finally gave birth to modern publishers. Therefore, it shows that the formation of modern publishers in Britain is the result of the comprehensive effect of multiple factors, and the process involves "cultural characteristics of books, changes of social and communication systems, field structure of publishing production, capital circulation, cost composition and profit mechanism, etc.