今天Fanessay分享一篇essay范文--The tutorial education，本篇文章讲述的内容是关于补习教育方面的，可以供大家了解下。在美国的大学中，学校与学院会给大学生们提供读、写、算的补习教育，这也是一种很普遍的现象。美国的补习教育说起来，可以追溯到17世纪，哈佛学院当时就派老师帮助学习上不足的同学学拉丁语。美国的补习教育兴起是有很多的原因，其中一个原因是初级学院的兴起与发展，还有一个便是国家对它的重视。
American tutorial education dates back to the 17th century, when harvard college assigned teachers to help underprepared students learn Latin. There are many reasons for the rise of American cram school education, one of which is the rise and development of "junior colleges". In addition to offering students a slightly wider range of knowledge about education and career education than in high school, junior colleges offer a variety of remedial education to nearby adults and on-campus students to enable them to better adapt to social development. To some extent, the development of American junior colleges promotes the development of remedial education, which provides a place for the implementation of remedial education, and becomes an important institution in the higher education institution of the United States to provide students with remedial courses.
Another important reason for education's rise and development in the United States is the country's attention to it. Back in the first world war, one or two American states introduced the habeas corpus. After the war, the United States was inspired by the reason that Germany could remain undefeated in the first world war for three years -- Germany attached importance to military mobilization in addition to its extensive practice of remedial education, which made the United States realize the importance of remedial education. Another motivation for education tuition in the United States was the discovery of a large and heterogeneous population and a growing number of people who did not receive education or did not speak English. At this time, the proposal of Smith and Hugh to carry out tutorial education in the United States and the regulation of tutorial education made by the two senators further promote the application of tutorial education in the United States.
Based on the results of the orientation test, the school decides which students need remedial study in reading, writing and calculation of these basic skills, and provides such remedial study to students. The remedial courses offered by the school are not only to cultivate the abilities that students lack, but also to lay the foundation for students to register for the higher level courses. At Norman community college, the number of remedial courses offered by the school is 000 to 999, and they are called developmental courses. For students to choose some courses, they must first complete some remedial courses. For example, the writing foundation of ENGC0800 requires students to complete the two developmental courses of EAP0760 and READ0860 before they can register for this course. At this level, the remedial course is a transitional learning stage for students to gradually transition to the study of university courses, and helps students to adapt to the study of university as soon as possible.
In addition to passing exams to determine whether students need to take remedial courses education to facilitate students' adaptation to university study, the school also provides high school students with some courses similar to university courses, so that students can prepare in advance for entering the university study.
The Ozark technology readiness association of the Ozark community college is the organization that provides pre-college courses to high school students. Students typically start taking these courses in the eleventh grade, and continue at technical community college for two years after high school without having to repeat high school in college. This technical preparation course is designed to connect the last two years of high school with at least two years of study after high school education. Courses that students sign up for will provide technical preparation for their chosen career area, and students will receive credit for the course, which is called free credit.
In addition to offering high school students this kind of college-like preparation for a future career, the Ozark technical community college offers capable high school seniors the opportunity to take college courses. Students can complete these courses in local schools and during normal study hours without teacher guidance, but students can earn credits from both the Ozark technical community college and the high school. Through the above two courses, high school students can not only prepare for their career development direction in advance, experience and adapt to the study life in college in advance, but also lay a foundation for them to enter college after graduation and successfully adapt to college life, so that high school and university can connect each other.
Although American universities provide remedial learning education for students, it plays an important role in reducing students' dropout rate, improving the retention rate of universities, helping students adapt to college life and expanding their admission opportunities. But the tutoring programs offered by American universities to freshmen, education, have faced criticism and criticism from all walks of life. Parents and students complain about the delay in students' graduation by attending a refresher course. Legislators complain that remedial courses should not be provided by universities, and that schools should not be required to pay twice to teach the same content; Many lawmakers and university administrators argue that remedial education should be provided by community colleges. The debate over remedial education is not just a education issue, it is a political issue, a social justice issue and an economic issue. In the face of some criticism from society, some states and universities have also taken measures to deal with the pressure brought by such criticism. In 1999, the city university of New York passed a resolution that would phase out education in four-year schools and transfer education to community colleges. Other states, such as California, also encourage students to complete remedial classes at community colleges before entering a four-year school.
While state policies on remedial education vary from state to state, so do school programs. However, all schools are faced with the same problems, such as what methods are adopted to decide whether students need to learn education, how to determine the standards of education, how to implement the remedial courses, and how to evaluate the education, etc., which are also the important reasons for the doubt of education.
Although our country student passes through layer upon layer selection and enters the university study of different level, but the freshman of different level school is different actually in the study adaptation ability. One of the important reasons is the arrival of education popularization stage in China, and students become increasingly diversified. Education provided by American universities for students provides some inspirations for solving the problem of learning adaptation of Chinese college students:
The problem of freshman learning adaptation is not a process completed in a short period of time, but a process of gradual transformation. So how to help freshmen adapt to college study as soon as possible, which requires the joint efforts of both students and the school. As a school, it should provide all kinds of guidance for freshmen to help them adapt to the study life in university from the aspects of psychology, learning method, learning attitude, learning motivation and interpersonal communication. This requires the school not only to do a good job in pre-school orientation guidance for freshmen, but also to do a good job in various preventive education, providing students with various adaptive education and psychological counseling on a regular and long-term basis, so as to enable freshmen to adapt to the study and life in university as soon as possible. For students in higher vocational colleges, schools need to help them enhance their confidence and reduce psychological pressure.
There are many factors influencing freshmen to adapt to college study, but the main factors are learning method, learning motivation, basic skills, learning foundation and psychology. The reason why some freshmen fail to adapt to the study of college courses is not entirely due to incorrect learning methods and lack of learning motivation, but because they lack the basic knowledge and basic skills to learn some courses. Therefore, the freshman, especially the higher vocational college students have to learn some knowledge level of the course and learning the basic skills to some necessary test, and the basis of the judgment for school students learning basic skills and learning ability, make the school to understand the student's strengths and weaknesses, and to provide guidance and take remedial measures aiming at the shortcomings of the students, help students will learn basic knowledge and skills of a particular field, prompting students to adapt to the course plays an important role in the future.
One of the reasons why freshmen encounter various difficulties in adapting to college study is that there is a big difference between college study and middle school study. The complexity of the content, the way of learning, the way of teaching and the way of thinking in university are all different from that in middle school. Studies have shown that the learning adaptation of college freshmen is a process of "breaking and reconstructing self and self-concept". The learning adaptation of freshmen is not only a personal problem, but also closely related to basic education and higher education. Therefore, how to make high school and university education connect each other will have a positive effect on freshmen to adapt to college study. Therefore, in addition to changing the current teaching method, examination method and learning concept of middle school education and focusing on cultivating students' ability of independent learning and thinking, the school can also provide students with some transitional courses from middle school to university according to their actual situation and ability. This basic, introductory course not only enables students to understand the basic situation of college study, but also enables students to master some basic skills of college study, which lays a foundation for their future study in colleges and universities. It will be of great help for them to adapt to college study as soon as possible.