今天论文代写机构Fanessay小编整理了一篇Assignment代写范文--The laboratory accreditation system in the United States,本篇文章阐述的内容关于美国实验室认可体系。几十年来，随着生产和贸易的蓬勃发展，随着各种产品认证、系统注册和实验室认可体系的扩大和完善，一种面向广大行业和科技界的检测实验室和校准实验室应运而生。
For decades, with the booming development of production and trade, with the expansion and improvement of various product certification, system registration and laboratory accreditation system, a kind of testing laboratory and calibration laboratory facing the vast industry and the scientific and technological community has been established all over the world, and received special attention from the governments of all countries.
The work of these testing and calibration laboratories can generally include: providing fair and reliable measurement data to the government and the public, so as to serve as the basis for the regulatory authorities to formulate laws and regulations, and thus regulate the market order; Assist enterprises to improve product quality and competitiveness; To help consumers understand the safety performance of goods and realize consumers' right to know and choose goods; Provide technical service for product certification; And to mediate or impose legal sanctions on judicial organs or administrative departments in the event of trade disputes or in the investigation and handling of counterfeit and shoddy commodities; In the event of a trade dispute with a WTO member, relevant measurement data may be provided to the WTO dispute settlement body to facilitate a fair settlement of the dispute. Of course, the role of these laboratories can be fully played only after they are recognized by the government or authorities for their capabilities.
Nowadays, the laboratory accreditation system can be generally divided into two categories. One is the centralized management model, which is adopted by most countries. Another is decentralized management. Our country belongs to the former. China's laboratory accreditation system is under the "national certification and accreditation supervision and administration committee" of the "China national accreditation committee for laboratories" responsible for the accreditation of laboratories and the establishment of a national operation system. The national operation system is established by the committee in accordance with ISO/IEC guide 58, "accreditation system for calibration and testing laboratories - general requirements for operation and accreditation". The American laboratory accreditation system is largely decentralized. In the United States, several accreditation programmes are implemented by federal, state, local or private enterprises. However, regardless of the form of the system, ISO/IEC guide 17025, "general requirements for testing and calibration laboratory capabilities", is the guideline for national laboratory accreditation systems.
The United States, highly developed in industry and technology, attaches great importance to the implementation of the laboratory accreditation program. Use an example to illustrate the importance of the laboratory accreditation system in the United States. In 1996 President Clinton signed into law an American act, the American screw quality act, for a single screw in manufacturing. Why did the United States go to great lengths to introduce this bill? It is precisely because the United States civilian and military screw quality is often unqualified and caused a series of large equipment and large buildings were seriously damaged, to the military industry and civilian industry caused very dangerous consequences, unexpected huge expenditure. The enactment of this act is in essence closely related to the laboratory accreditation system. Section 5 of the act requires the designation of a screw testing laboratory that must apply for accreditation under the American voluntary laboratory accreditation program administered by the American institute of standards and technology, or accreditation with the NVLAP accreditation authority. This means that the quality of screws used in the United States, whether imported or produced locally, must be guaranteed. Screw suppliers that import to the United States must test the rules without slack. This is a strict determination of the American bill.
It is well known that accreditation schemes in the United States are implemented differently from those in most countries. In other countries these powers are delegated to authoritative public organizations or institutions with some degree of government involvement. In the United States, however, the pilot accreditation program is managed jointly by all levels of government and the private sector.
Most of the accreditation programs implemented by American laboratories are designed to meet the special needs of governments and private companies, which implement different forms of accreditation programs. The process for evaluating laboratory capabilities varies. Basically, there are three levels:
Laboratory accreditation programs vary widely within the United States federal government. The laboratory accreditation program is administered by governments at all levels and the private sector. The United States does not have a centralized management model.
National voluntary laboratory accreditation program, NVLAP is a comprehensive accreditation program. The solution is listed in NIST handbook 150. This protocol is in accordance with the basic contents of ISO/IEC guideline 17025-1999, general requirements for the capabilities of testing and calibration laboratories. NVLAP is suitable for testing and calibration laboratories, both official and private, including: commercial laboratories, in-house factory laboratories, university laboratories, as well as federal, state and local government laboratories. Two certificates shall be issued to certify the accreditation of NVLAP laboratory: one is the accreditation certificate; Second, the scope of the specification.
The NVLAP symbol is a federal registered symbol operated by the national institute of standards and technology. NIST and the federal government have the authority to control the use of this identifier. The right to use this logo is granted to laboratories accredited by NVLAP. Laboratories may have the right to use the label when announcing their approval status, as well as the test report and calibration report provided. However, NIST reserves the right to control the quality of use of this identifier.
In addition to NVLAP, there are other accreditation programs in the United States, some of which require only a minimal review of laboratory qualifications, some of which require a designated laboratory to screen the initial product and require a federal laboratory to provide critical test data. For example, the defense logistics agency of the U.S. department of defense only recognizes laboratories that are capable of testing products required by the logistics agency. The defense department's laboratory accreditation program is open only to organizations that have the ability to provide products to the government.
In most cases, state and local governments require certain products to be inspected or tested by authorized agencies to manage the products. For example, state and local governments in the United States regulate building and electrical materials by requiring them to pass tests and be labeled with an approved laboratory. Or, as in the above federal regulatory program, designate some laboratories as conformance tests for products to perform certain supervisory and screening assistance. State and local government laboratories dedicated to providing vital test data.
As with the federal government, requirements at the state and local level vary from program to program. Some of the programs are very comprehensive and considerate in their scope of recognition, while others are only partial recognition of the laboratory capacity, with a simple process and a single project.
Private accrediting organizations in the United States also administer the laboratory accreditation program. It helps laboratories maintain their capabilities, helps an industry avoid government regulation in the form of self-assurance, and helps government agencies enforce regulations, such as testing construction products. The American blood bank association operates an accreditation program for blood Banks and blood transfusion services that has been approved and adopted by many state governments. Another example: the American college of pathology program recognizes hospitals and independent medical laboratories, and the CAP program is used by the VA to ensure the quality of VA medical equipment. A accreditation scheme operated by the American association for laboratory accreditation allows accreditation of laboratories in a variety of testing areas.
Now, the United States is actively working on bilateral or multilateral agreements between governments to enable mutual recognition of test data. These agreements require either party to accept the test data generated by the other party's accredited laboratory. Mutual trust in each other's recognized laboratory testing capabilities is a guarantee for the successful implementation of these protocols. One example of such a multilateral agreement is the international agreement on the transport of perishable food and its use of special equipment. ATP is a multilateral agreement that sets standards for the testing and use of perishable food transport equipment. Usda certifies testing stations and laboratories in accordance with ATP requirements. These groups can issue us ATP certificates, which are recognised by other ATP signatories. Among them are: Australia, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Morocco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia.
The national voluntary laboratory accreditation program of NIST has signed bilateral agreements between the national association of testing institutions of the United States and Australia, the test laboratory registration board of New Zealand, and the Canadian standards board, respectively. In accordance with these agreements, data obtained by a laboratory recognized by one party shall be recognized by the other party.
Laboratory accreditation system is an important project to guarantee product quality in the world. The implementation of this system in the United States has received high attention, the main reason may be that this measure can guarantee: can use the reliable test data of recognized laboratories to improve the level of government authorities to formulate laws, regulations and supervision and management, and to regulate the order of the commodity market; Can assist enterprises to improve product quality and improve product competitiveness. Over the years, the laboratory accreditation system has been continuously improved and improved all over the world.