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Assignment代写范文:The police system in the United States 2019-04-11

今天论文代写机构Fanessay小编整理了一篇Assignment代写范文--The police system in the United States,本篇文章阐述的内容关于美国的警察系统。美国没有一个统一的中央警察局,只有执法机构,它是联邦政府行政部门的一个分支。联邦调查局是美国最大的联邦警察部门,也是最重要的联邦执法机构。它对所有违反联邦法律的活动都有管辖权。调查范围包括间谍活动、破坏活动、叛国、违反联邦民权法、袭击或谋杀联邦官员、绑架、银行抢劫、飞机劫持、有组织犯罪和州际犯罪活动。联邦调查局还向当地执法机构提供重要服务,例如提供犯罪信息和帮助识别重要物证。近年来,美国联邦法律一直在扩大该局的权力,以弥补州法律在打击犯罪方面的漏洞。


The United States does not have a unified central police agency, which is often called the law enforcement agency. It is a branch of the executive branch of the federal government.


The fbi is the largest federal police department in the United States and the most important federal law enforcement agency. It has jurisdiction over all activities that violate federal law. The investigation covers espionage, sabotage, treason, violation of federal civil rights laws, assault or murder of federal officials, kidnapping, bank robbery, airplane hijacking, organized crime, and interstate criminal activity. The fbi also provides important services to local law enforcement agencies, such as providing criminal information and helping to identify important physical evidence. In recent years, federal law in the United States has been expanding the bureau's authority to close loopholes in state laws in the fight against crime.


Two other important federal police force is: the central intelligence agency and the national security agency relationship between the responsibility of the central intelligence agency to U.S. national security, but the United States are prohibited by law from it in the United States to perform any task, the central intelligence agency in the United States has the power to search, arrest, detention, and monitoring, their emphasis on preventing foreign threats against the United States. Under the direct supervision of the President of the United States, the main mission of the cia is to collect, assemble evidence and provide accurate and timely foreign intelligence about American security and counterespionage against foreign spies.


The main role of the national security agency is to coordinate, direct, and take special actions to protect the U.S. intelligence community and reduce foreign espionage. As a high-tech organization, the national security agency is at the forefront of intelligence and data processing, and one of the centers of foreign language analysis, investigation, research and development.


Each state government in the United States has its own police agency. The federal police enforce the law according to the federal law, while the state, county and city police enforce the law according to their respective local laws. There are 50 states in the United States. Each state has its own laws and its own courts, prisons and police stations. Therefore, a case in the United States may be investigated by several departments at the same time. If a criminal violates both federal and state laws, he will be tried not only by the federal court, but also by the state court. His sentence will be accumulated, which is the biggest characteristic of the state police in the United States. The state police is an autonomous force that performs police duties in areas that are not covered by local police agencies, such as counties and cities, such as patrolling state highways and solving traffic accidents. In the United States, the activities of state police are limited, so their position in the entire U.S. police organization is not very important. The specific duties of state police are detailed in state laws. The organizational forms and responsibilities of state police agencies vary from state to state, but taken together, there are three main modes of state police agencies in the United States. The first kind is patrolman mode, or call patrolman police mechanism. The primary duties of this state police agency are to enforce state traffic laws, investigate and prevent accidents, correct and punish traffic violations, and ensure highway safety. California's highway patrol exemplifies this model. The second is the law enforcement model, or law enforcement police agency. This state police agency has full enforcement responsibilities, including crime detection, policing, law enforcement, highway patrol, etc. The Illinois police department is the poster child for this model. The third is a two-element model, or patrol-enforcement model. The state police is divided into two separate entities, one for highway patrol and one for general law enforcement. For example, the Florida highway patrol is responsible for state highway patrol and the detection of minor criminal cases that occur on state roads. The Florida department of law enforcement is responsible for general enforcement, including the detection of serious criminal cases on state highways.


In addition to the three types of state police, states also have smaller state police agencies and specialized law enforcement agencies responsible for a particular area. The former are the state park police department and the state university police department; The latter is the state drug administration. In theory, state law enforcement agencies have the power to enforce policing across the state. In practice, however, state police agencies generally avoid entering the jurisdiction of municipal police departments and concentrate their enforcement efforts on regional and state highways where there are no autonomous police stations. Of course, since state police agencies often have experienced investigators and advanced equipment, they often provide services such as difficult case investigation, forensic science identification, information retrieval and various professional training to the smaller state police agencies.


Because of its size, role, and social impact, the urban police is the largest and most important component of American institutions. Currently, the metropolitan police department employs about three-quarters of all full-time officers in the United States. The city police are responsible for enforcing the law, maintaining social order and providing services to the community. In the United States, the urban police law enforcement agencies are all under the jurisdiction of the urban administrative agencies, but there is no uniform regulation in the specific management form of the federal government. In cities with single-mayoral system, the urban police department is in the charge of the mayor, while in cities with parliamentary system, the police department is led by the police committee. Because cities are the most densely populated and complex places in the United States, and homicide, robbery and other malignant cases occur from time to time, the work of the urban police in the United States is much more complicated and burdensome than that of the county-level police. One of the most obvious signs is that the city police has a wider scope of law enforcement than the county-level police, with a much wider range of services. In addition to patrolling and solving all kinds of criminal cases, they also have to first respond to and solve social problems such as alcoholism, drug abuse and family disputes. The city police patrol 24 hours a day on three shifts.


The county police agency is the county administration and justice department under the leadership of the county sheriff. The U.S. county police force is numerous but small, and most lack regular police. County police agencies in the United States has two characteristics: one is the most sheriffs, is elected, compared with other appointed local government officials, the county police chief is higher than other local government officials have autonomy, most of the police chief, is the person with higher prestige in the region, have certain independence; Second, the county level administrative institutions is not large, so the county police chief mostly set functions in one, a criminal justice system three aspects most county sheriffs, is head of the county police, and county attorney, or county, the warden has the full function of criminal justice, this is the most unique American county police department police work. In most counties, cracking down on criminal offenses is not the main task of county-level police agencies, which deal mostly with traffic accidents, family disputes and other issues.


There are about 3,000 county-level law enforcement agencies in the United States. These law enforcement agencies mainly have two models: one is the county judicial bureau model; One is the county police department model. The former is the traditional model of county law enforcement agencies in the United States. Most counties in the United States currently use this model. The latter is a relatively new model of county-level law enforcement agency, in which the county police chief is the county's law enforcement officer and is responsible for the police affairs of the county. This model is currently only being used in some counties in the United States, such as Jacksonville county, Florida. The system of the county police is the same as that of the town police. According to the size of law enforcement power, the county judicial bureau can be divided into two models: first, the county judicial administrator's authority is limited to the management of the prison and the maintenance of court order, that is, only the prison police and bailiffs function; Secondly, the county judicial administrator's functions and powers include crime investigation, public security and traffic management, that is, all law enforcement functions. In the second case, county sheriffs often have special police stations under their command, and in some places the sheriffs double as police chiefs.


In recent years, some American scholars have called for greater cooperation between law enforcement agencies and greater uniformity in law enforcement activities, and even suggested merging police agencies. They argue that the "piecemeal" police system is not conducive to criminal investigation because, on the one hand, those "micro" police organs are unable to carry out effective investigation and case solving work. On the other hand, this state of police "balkanization" is also an obstacle to criminal investigation. Especially when dealing with trans-regional crimes, the investigation lacks unified command, and sometimes there is even "passive competition" between police organs. However, the proposal to merge the police forces is opposed by many americans, particularly local governments and local police departments. They argue that the merging of police forces violates the traditional American principles of "autonomous police" and "the right of local residents to choose their own way of policing", is not conducive to the conduct of police work according to local characteristics, and will harm the interests of local governments and local residents. In a word, decentralization is a tradition of American society and a basic feature of the current American legal system, so it is very difficult to change it.