今天论文代写机构Fanessay小编整理了一篇Essay代写范文--The origins of the free farmer in England，本篇文章阐述的内容关于英国自由农民的起源。“自由”概念的含义从中世纪早期到中世纪晚期发生了很大的变化。中世纪早期与中世纪晚期、近代早期有明显的不同。在中世纪早期，自由佃农主要是自由所有者。在中世纪晚期和近代早期，由于传统的依农向自由农场主的转变，传统土地上的文人和契约佃户也摆脱了封建土地制度的束缚，成为自由农场主。
The meaning of the concept of "freedom" changed a lot from the early middle ages to the late middle ages. The early middle ages were obviously different from the late middle ages and early modern times. In the early middle ages, free sharecroppers were mainly free holders. In the late middle ages and early modern times, due to the transformation from traditional dependent farmers to free farmers, copyholders and indentured tenants on conventional land had also got rid of the shackles of feudal manorial system and become free farmers. Therefore, tracing the historical origin of free farmers in Britain mainly means clarifying the source of free farmers and clarifying the relationship between free farmers and free smallholders in the Anglo-Saxon era.
When the anglo-saxons came to Britain, some of the britons of England fled to wales, but many stayed and gradually merged with the anglo-saxons. Later, the danes invaded and settled there, leaving many ruins. But generally speaking, England in the six hundred years from the fifth to the eleventh century was an Anglo-Saxon society in terms of language, culture and so on. The anglo-saxons, with tribes and clans as the unit, under the leadership of the leader, gradually settled in all parts of England, engaged in farming, planting crops such as barley, wheat and oats. The Anglo-Saxon villages are called ham or tun. Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Ham Tun was for fence, roughly the protection around the house, but later village. The ordinary inhabitants of the village, called keer, own their homes and farm land on a household basis. Keels were free men, and in wessex they were paid 200 shillings for their lives and 100 shillings in Kent. They farm small plots of land and live largely self-sufficient lives. Their right to land shall be protected and shall not be infringed upon by others. On the contrary, the slave's status is very low, it is the property of others, so he did not pay for his life, the harm to him only to the slave owners compensation. Slaves themselves had no property, so the punishment for breaking the law was limited to corporal punishment. There was an active slave market, with slaves valued at about half a pound for women and one pound for men. Keele was obliged to join the army and was a soldier, following the ancient tradition that all men had to do military service. They were the subjects of rights under the legal system at the time and had the right to appear in court. They attend the courts of the hundreds of families where it is customary for all the members to be present, adjudicate certain cases by all the members according to common law, take part in public security activities such as the local banditry, and may also participate in the proceedings and guarantees of the crown courts. Under the condition of the formation of royal power, as a basic rural resident, keer had certain obligations to the royal power. From the 8th century on, there was a common burden of labor for residents, which was called three obligations, namely, building Bridges, forts and military service. And tithe. Keer was an independent, self-farming smallholder whose legal status was basically the same. People who are similar to keele are gerber and gavogilda.
By the 11th century, the term had disappeared. The principal labourers on the farm were gerber, who worked two or three days a week for his master, and many other physical and monetary rents. Its status is almost the same as that of medieval villand. However, in the same century, the property of hurstbourne in hampshire recorded the obligation of keer, which was very similar to the above mentioned geble, except that the obligation of labor was to work every week, which was not explicitly stipulated as 2-3 days per week like geble. It follows that a considerable number of kors are converted to geboels and possibly to villand. Hilton pointed out that in the famous "Henry I act", it was clearly stipulated that the bottom freeman who enjoyed the freedom of villand was authorized to redeem and kill 200 shillings of gold. They are, however, described by the author as "humble and incapable of independent action", reflecting the fact that even free Wieland has long been a despised and dependent class. The situation of villand reflected in the book of doom was also free on the whole, but there was a certain dependence on the Lord. The sentence "the former free man now becomes villand" appeared, indicating that there was a difference between villand's identity and that of the free man.
Limited to materials, the status of the early inhabitants of medieval England can only be understood through the doomsday book. According to the book of doom, there were five classes of rural laborers, and they were ranked according to their rank: free men, sockmans, Wieland, frontier farmers and thatchers, and slaves. Together, the freemen and sockmans numbered 37,000, accounting for 14% of the total population and 20% of the land; The largest population is veran, 109,000 people, accounting for 41% of the population and 45% of the arable land. There are 87,000 border farmers and thatchers in total, accounting for 32% of the population and only about 5% of the land. There were 28,000 slaves, about 10 percent of the population, and they generally did not own land. The freemen and sockmans were the highest, and villand was the next highest. They were no longer completely independent of the manor or the Lord. The frontier farmer appears to be the owner of a small plot of land.
Wieland was the majority of English farmers in the middle ages. Most British historians, from the early maitland, vinograev to Hilton, believe that the identity of vinograev experienced a development path from freedom to slavery and then to freedom. Veran's identity in the book of doom is that of a free man in general, though he is somewhat dependent on the Lord. So how did villan, the subject of the peasant, become synonymous with serfdom? Western scholars have discussed this issue quite a lot, and they differ greatly. But generally speaking, villand's serfdom was gradually completed with the development of the manor system in England after the Norman conquest.
More than 100 years after the Norman conquest, important changes took place in villand's identity. Because of low productivity and extensive cultivation system, the Lord is necessary to create separate supply their own proprietary, due to the shortage of the Labour force, Lord need to take control of labor of people's economic coercive measures, to use the surplus labor of farmers in farming, to protect life, Yu Shiwei began to servitude, obligation of tax, such as marriage donated nidering. As the main body of farmers, villand also lost his freedom. Postan believed that although the economic status of villand in the 12th century was significantly improved compared with that in the 11th century, its legal status began to deteriorate. The laws of Henry ii established villand's serfdom status. Hilton did not agree with postan's point of view, trying to make the legal status of farmers and economic status consistent, put forward the definition of the identity of farmers, not only to believe in legal works and official documents, but also to see a variety of cases, the estate investigation records. From these records, he came to the conclusion that the 12th century whelan is not serf, still is not free, just in the 12th century the last 20 years, under the attack of the lords, d LanCai oppressed as serfs, loss of freedom, whelan became the prime symbol for the serf's servitude, at the same time, the royal court will no longer accept whelan litigation. Whatever the differences in the timing of serfdom, most historians agree on the question of veran's status from free to unfree.
Through the analysis of the free smallholders in Anglo-Saxon period and the change of villand's identity, it is not difficult to see that the free smallholders in Anglo-Saxon period and villand were not the main sources of the middle free farmers. What about the origins of free farmers in medieval England? Where did they come from?
Early medieval sources refer to the rural population not as peasants or peasants, but as free men, semi-free men, and serfs. All these people engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry were subject to the common law of the early middle ages, as recorded by the civil law. Free men can attend public meetings and have all their lawful rights, and usually have free land. On the contrary, serfs had no property of their own and held land that was not free. They had duties of taxation and servitude, and were under the control of their master, the Lord of the manor. The church preaches that man is divided from the beginning into prayers, laborers, and combatants. The tenth century when a monk - well, the abbot, England early essayist al flake, the social structure of Britain at the time a general explanation is: "kingship, relying on" three pillars "support - laborers, preacher and combatant: fatigue of the author is I provide food and clothing, only plough sowers specialize in this; Sermons are monks who seek god's help for us and carry the Gospel among the people of Christ, and who are exclusively ordained to do this for our benefit; A combatant is someone who guards a city and a home for us with weapons against an approaching enemy. This division was taken for granted in later centuries. The farmers and livestock breeders who determined the formation of European agricultural society in the early middle ages certainly appeared very early, while the formation of a class of free farmers as a status in Britain was recognized by historians to be in sync with the formation of the feudal manor system.
This is the German historian rosner's overall summary of the formation of the free peasant class in Western Europe, which he believed emerged after the formation of the professional knight class in the 11th and 2nd centuries. The situation of Britain is similar to that of Western Europe as a whole. That is to say, the British free farmers also appeared in the formation and development of the noble knight class, but they had their own uniqueness. The British history changed its original track after the Norman conquest. The establishment of the Norman French aristocracy's rule in Britain made Britain have certain similarities with the social structure of other countries in Western Europe. The first was the sockmans, who were mainly distributed in the Danish region of the former United Kingdom. They were free-standing peasants who were entitled to sockmans' land on the condition that they paid monetary rent or rent in kind to the Lord, as well as minor servitude. Maitland once gave the example of the conditional possession of such land: there was a sokker collar whose obligation was symbolic, such as the offering of a rose every year. There is also a condition for the payment of a physical object, such as a pair of gloves, a sparrowhawk, a pound of pepper, etc. There is also a sock collar for paying ground rent in currency. The second was villand, whose position was lower than that of the free men and sockman, who formed the majority of the English peasants after the Norman conquest. According to the doomsday book, at that time, villand accounted for 41% of the population of British manors, and economically, villand occupied 45% of the land. What are their historical ties to the middle freeholders?
English knights began to appear after the Norman conquest in 1066, and the status of laborers in the manor changed significantly with the realization of the manor. The consensus of scholars on the time of the realization of manor serfdom began in the 12th century, especially after the second half of the 12th century. In the 12th century forest law, veran lost his freedom and became a serf. Therefore, some scholars believe that serfdom was completed in the middle of the 12th century, at the latest by the end of the 12th century. Some scholars believe that it was completed in the beginning of the 13th century. For example, Hilton pointed out that the most representative serfdom taxes were created in the last 25 years of the 12th century. From this point of view, it is quite accurate that the change of manor labors' status was basically completed in the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century. At the same time villand serficized, the free peasant class was formed.
It is not difficult to see from this that the free peasants in the middle ages in England developed from the process of the formation of serfdom.
Free farmers in medieval England had a certain status. They were free men of free blood, and the Lord had no right to sell or transfer them. The conditions under which they acquired land were free, not servile. They generally paid a monetary rent to the Lord, but no labor, or only minor labor. Their obligations are therefore not menial and uncertain. Their land rights were secured, and they kept the land permanently for themselves and their heirs, not for years or at the will of the Lord, and after their death it had to be given to the heirs. When the rights of the free peasants are infringed upon by the Lord or others, they can seek compensation from the royal courts of justice, and they can bring lawsuits to the court of the hundred families and the court of the manor court if necessary.
Due to the complex social situation and frequent land transfer, the inconsistency between the land hierarchy and the identity of people emerged. The free people were entitled to the land of villand, while the serfs were entitled to the free land. But this is a minority. In most cases, the rank of the land and the identity of the holder are the same.
Two remarkable things about the history of the free peasant are that even in the 13th century, when serfdom was at its harshest, more than a third of the population was free; The emancipation of serfs coexisted with the development of serfdom. If the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century as the completion of the serfdom stage, almost at the same time, serf towards freedom of the tide of liberation has begun to emerge. On the whole, serfdom ceased to exist at the end of the 14th century. Even conservatively, by the middle of the 15th century at least, most people in the English countryside were already free, and their freedom was irreversible.
The historical origin of free peasants in medieval England is actually that of free holding peasants or free sharecroppers. The small free farmers of the Anglo-Saxon period and the Wieland were not the main sources of free farmers in England. In the Norman conquest period, villan, as the main body of peasants, gradually became a legal serf and only a few of them became free peasants. The formation of the English free peasant class in the process of manorial, mainly from the Franks into England and the former Danish region of the sockmans.