今天Faneesay分享一篇Paper代写范文-- Oral-B Toothpaste，本篇文章讨论的内容是关于欧乐B的牙膏方面的，可以供大家了解。欧乐B牙膏是牙科专家推荐的一大牙膏品牌，创立于20世纪50年代，迅速发展成最受欢迎的牙科产品品牌之一了。对于欧乐B品牌的牙膏，是含有微小颗粒的，可以有效地溶解斑块，并被认为是世界上最有效的牙膏清洁技术之一。对比起专业的牙膏，深层清洁的牙膏是含有五倍小的微珠，令牙齿更加清洁了。
Toothpaste is used daily by everyone as a personal hygiene product. The earliest form of toothpaste was found in Ancient Egypt. Addition of fluorides into toothpastes in the 1940s has significantly reduced the chance of dental problems. After centuries of development, toothpaste has taken a stabilized set of ingredients and become one of the necessary product for everyone. Compared to other personal hygiene products, toothpaste seems relatively safe, since it is a product used within the mouth on a daily basis. However, the seemingly safe product still contains negative health and environmental implications. Only by establishing a thorough understanding of a product can a customer fully trust it. Such an understanding is motivated by the need for a responsible member of the society to make sustainable life choices, and is based on extensive research on the product. This report will examine the ingredients and the manufacturing process of a popular toothpaste product to find out what these implications are. Based on the research, it has been found that there are many ingredients in the toothpaste that are hazardous to human health, especially when the dosage is increased.
The name of the product studied is the Oral-B Pro-Expert Deep Clean Toothpaste. It is promoted as the number one recommended toothpaste brand by dental experts (Oral-B). The Oral-B brand was created in the 1950s, and soon developed into one of the most popular brands of dental products. After the acquisition of the brand in 2006, the manufacturer of the toothpaste is now the Procter & Gamble Company located in Germany (Oral-B). The toothpaste contains micro-particles that perform actively to dissolve plaque, which is considered one of the most effective cleaning technologies in the world for toothpastes. Compared to a Pro-Expert Toothpaste, the Deep Clean one features microbeads that are five times smaller, which enables the teeth to be more easily cleaned (Oral-B). Regarding the safety of the product, however, Oral-B suggests that the toothpaste would only be safe and effective when used under directions. This means that there might be danger if one consumes more of the toothpaste than he or she should.
The ingredients in the toothpaste include “Glycerin, Hydrated Silica, Sodium Hexametaphosphate,Propylene Glycol, PEG-6, Aqua, Zinc Lactate, CI 77891, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Gluconate, Aroma, Chondrus Crispus Powder, Trisodium Phosphate, Stannous Fluoride, Sodium Saccharin, Xanthan Gum, Silica and Sodium Fluoride” (Oral-B). The description, origin and functionality of these ingredients will be discussed in future parts of this report. The combination of ingredients is “unique”, according to the Oral-B website. Different ingredients target different dental health problems, including cavities, plaque, gum problems, sensitivity, stains, bad breath, tartar and erosion (Oral-B). In addition to the microbeads, Stannous Fluoride Complex is the other ingredient in the toothpaste that is featured in the product description page. This ingredient forms a “shield” within the mouth of the users, that provide protection from acid erosion for hours.
Health Hazards & Environmental Implications
Aqua, Zinc Lactate, Sodium Gluconate, Xanthan Gum & Silica are ingredients that are obtained from natural sources, which means that they have little negative health and environmental implications.The word “aroma” can refer to many different compounds, for example, peppermint. It is not specified most probably because it is from a natural source. Glycerin is a sticky fluid commonly used mica, industry as dissolving fluid, edulcorant and lubricant. It does not have any detrimental effect on human health when consumed. No stimulation for the skin and the eyes has been observed, either. There are two ways of obtaining Glycerin (Adhikari and Agus 1097). The first way is to produce it from natural oil, while the second is by chemical synthesis from propylene. In the process of chemical synthesis, which is the more stable and efficient way of producing Glycerin, large amounts of waste water are generated. Without proper treatment, the waste water is going to harm the ground water system at the location of the factory. Chondrus Crispus is also known as Irish moss which is a species of red algae growing along parts of the Atlantic coast. the powder of Chondrus Crispus is added to the toothpaste as a thickening agent which stabilizes the product. Since Chondrus Crispus grows abundantly, the use of this ingredient will cause little harm to the environment (Breyer).
Diatomaceous earth was used as the earliest tooth powder used by humans. The main component of diatomaceous earth is Hydrated Silica (Capinera). This compound is a find abrasive material that is effective in removing the plaque on the teeth, while minimizing the damage in the teeth. According to FDA, hydrated silica is considered “Generally Recognized as Safe” for humans. The production of Hydrated Silica has become a relatively green process due to the chemically inert nature of it. Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is widely applied in the toothpaste industry which helps remove stains on the teeth and prevent the formation of tartar. The potential problems of pollution are not listed by either the US or the Canadian government, which indicates that SHMP is safe to produce under regulations (Dalpasquale et al). Propylene Glycol is used in the toothpaste as wetting agent. The toxin level of Propylene Glycol is even lower than salt, which makes it a safe ingredient as it only accounts for a small fraction in the toothpaste. CI 77891 is one of the many names for titanium dioxide, which is a fine power commonly used in food and cosmetics. In the toothpaste, CI 77891 functions as pigment. Normally CI 77891 wouldn’t pose any threat to the human health or the environment. According to FDA, the pure form of CI 77891 is considered safe with no harmful effects.
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is used as a surfucant in toothpaste that separate molecules from each other to allow better absorption. SLS is a cheap ingredient but also effective in making the toothpaste work better through improved product-skin interaction. There are debates about the association between SLS with cancer, but no proof has been found yet (SLSFree). Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) is reported to be hazardous compound that is linked to abdominal burning or reproductive failure. Although FDA doesn’t not list TSP as hazardous under small dosage, customers certainly should be more cautious in using it, especially women and children (Seattle Organic Restaurants). Sodium Saccharin is an artificial sweetener and a cheap flavoring agent in toothpastes (Ryan). A Canadian study has shown the potential link between bladder cancer and Sodium Saccharin. However, this result has yet to be confirmed on a larger scale (Ryan).
PEG is the short for polyethylene glycol, and PEG-6 is one of the polyethylene glycol family members. PEG-6 is commonly used in cosmetic products as surfactants and cleansing agents. According to a report in International Journal of Toxicology, PEG compounds appears to be harmful for people with skin damage. It is thus advised not to be used for customers with damaged skin, as it contains multiple types of toxins including heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic compounds, which can induce cancer after long-term exposure. The ethylene oxide found in PEG will increase the chance of uterine, breast and brain cancers as well as leukemia. The 1,4-dioxane found in PEG-6 is yet another carcinogen that should be minimized. Although the 1,4-dioxane can be removed from cosmetic products at a reasonable cost, manufacturers have shown little interest in doing so. It is unclear whether Oral-B uses the vacuum stripping technology in removing the carcinogen. However, it is likely that it doesn’t, as it is an industry practice of saving cost.
Both Stannous Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride are sources of fluoride ions that reduce cavity. The benefits of Stannous Fluoride include the reduction of bacteria in mouth and tooth sensitivity. Overuse of Stannous Fluoride can cause stains in the teeth. Therefore, a warning should come with the package on the proper amount of toothpaste to be used each time.
Children under the age of 12 is also advised against using toothpaste with Stannous Fluoride in it. Sodium Fluoride has similar benefits as Stannous Fluoride. It also acts to repair enamel and prevent tooth decay. Excessive used of Sodium Fluoride can cause skeletal issues. however, Sodium Fluoride is safe for both adults and children to use (Denial). Besides health implications, Fluoride can also harm the ecosystem through destruction of marine and freshwater fish. Release of large amounts of fluoride into the environment will also cause harm to plants and trees (Clinch).
In addition to the ingredients mentioned above, the highlighted use of microbeads (tiny plastic balls) in the Oral-B toothpaste is posing the biggest environmental concern (Derbyshire). Due to the small size of the microbeads, most of them are able to go through the filters in the sewage and enter into natural water bodies. These tiny plastic balls are then consumed by planktons, which is the entrance of them into the food chain. As a result, hundreds of marine species have been found with microbeads in their stomach, with unknown health risks.
In conclusion, although toothpaste is a seemingly safe product and Oral-B is a world-renowned brand, there are ingredients in the Oral-B Pro-Expert Deep Clean Toothpaste that are at least questionable for the health of the users. Most ingredients, including Aqua, Zinc Lactate, Sodium Gluconate, Xanthan Gum and Silica, are considered safe due to their natural origin and way of manufacture. SLS, TSP and Sodium Saccharin have been debated scientifically for their detrimental effects. Due to the lack of sponsoring and the limitations in conducting experiments, the claims of these ingredients to induce caner have yet to be fully proved. However, such a correlation should not be overlooked while choosing a product. Finally, both Stannous Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride are beneficial for dental health. But the entrance of fluoride can cause disturbances in the ecosystem. The use of plastic microbeads should also be banned, since it is the biggest environmental threat for this product. The detrimental effect on the marine animals and the entire food chain has already been confirmed. As a company responsible for the health of its customers, Oral-B should include clear instructions on the dosage of toothpaste to be used each time to minimize the potential health hazards. In addition, the implications should be listed in a manual of instruction, so that the customers are better informed about what they are using.
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