今天Fanessay分享一篇Essay代写范文--About Young Children Have a Specific, Highly Robust Bias to Trust Testimony，本篇文章讨论的内容是关于小孩子对大人的信任。对于小孩子来说，他们是更加容易信任别人的，毕竟他们对成人的世界缺乏经验，而成人的世界中通常与欺骗有关，所以小孩子相信大人的话，也是比较正常的，因为他们都很难不相信。有些人认为，这种信任的原因是因为就算没有完全依赖成年人生存，幼儿也会依赖成年人，这就形成了孩子们和他们互动的一个期望了。
It is common sense that young children are more trusting than adults. After all, they have little experience of the adult world that is commonly associated with deception. It is ordinary for young children to take the adults words for it, as they seem to have difficulty in disbelieving. Some argue that the reason for such trust is because young children are highly, if not entirely dependent on the adults for survival. This forms a general expectation of the children for the individuals that they interact with. For the children, the adults are expected to be helpful, as they always are. This leads to the hypothesis that young children have a general, undifferentiated expectation for the adults they interaction with. However, others believe that such generalized expectations are inaccurate. Instead, there are more specific cues or bias to trust. Among these specific factors, testimony is the focus of this paper. Through two studies, the paper aims to find out whether 3-yo children trust in undifferentiated ways, or do they have an especially robust bias towards testimonies.
In Study 1, 32 3-year-olds were tested individually and went through 8 trail tests to locate the stickers or puppets from under two cups. In the first type of test, the experimenter provided verbal misleading information, leading the children to the wrong cups consecutively. In the second type of test, the experimenter did not provide verbal cues. Instead, she placed an arrow on the wrong cup as a misleading visual information. In Study 2, the comparison was made between verbal instructions alone, and the presence of both verbal and visual directions from the experimenter. The study is conducted through a computer, and the children were asked to find the virtual sticker instead of the physical ones in Study 1. In group 1, children were only able to hear the misleading instructions given to them. In group 2, children were able to both see and hear the misleading instructions through a pre-recorded video.
Study 1 has found that after the initial trust in the misleading information, children given the nonverbal arrow cues were much quicker in adopting to the situation and realizing that the directions given were misleading. As a result, they earned much more stickers than the other group. In comparison, the children provided with verbal misleading instructions were much less inclined to doubt. This result, according to the authors, is due to the different levels of interferences between the testimony and the visual clues. Similarly, in Study 2, more children in the audio-alone setting realized the deceiving nature of the directions and found more stickers as a result of not listening to the audio instructions. Once the audio directions were not helpful, many children simply chose to tune out or attend to it occasionally only. In contrast, the visual presence of the speaker became a major obstacle for the other group to realize the trick.
Overall, the initial inclination of children to trust in adults goes without saying. The question lies in whether specific forms of information make children more biased towards trusting than others. The answer is affirmative through the two studies. Young children’s trust in testimony is found to be more robust than visual information. Meanwhile, the presence of the visible speaker image creates even more robust biases among young children than audio testimonies alone. Future research can focus on the mechanism of how children become more skeptical with similar experimental settings. Other more specific sources of bias should also be explored. For example, whether the experimenter is smiling, the impact of facial expression and body language on children’s trust, etc.